Buddha or Buddha Gautama, also known as Shakyamuni Buddha, was a great spiritual Master from ancient India. The rich treasury of Buddha’s spiritual doctrine on universal truths are studied and revered to this day for their deep wisdom and compassion. The Itivuttaka, which means “as it was said” in Pali, is a Buddhist scripture and part of the recollection of Buddha’s discourses. There are 112 short teachings ascribed in the text to the Buddha, each consisting of a prose portion followed by a verse portion. It is considered as one of the earliest of all Buddhist scriptures.